Secchi, M, Xu, Q, Lusso, P, and Vangelista, L. Protein Expr Purif. 2009 Nov;68(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.pep.2009.06.018. Epub 2009 Jun 30.
Synopsis: RANTES is a natural protein expressed on activated T cells; one of the activities of RANTES is to bind to the CCR5 HIV-co-receptor. This binding activity prevents HIV infection of the T cell by blocking the secondary receptor for HIV-1 infection. A chemokine derivative of RANTES (termed C1C5) works like native RANTES by binding to the CCR5 co-receptor thus, blocking HIV-1 infection. C1C5 RANTES was expressed in Lactobacillus and found to be not only correctly folded, but interestingly, Lactobacillus folded the protein more efficiently than mammalian expression systems.