Liu, X, Lagenaur, LA, Lee, PP, Xu, Q. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Aug;74(15):4626-35. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00104-08. Epub 2008
Synopsis: The primary receptor for HIV-1 is CD4, which is normally found on CD4+ T cells. Osel identified native surface proteins on Lactobacillus and linked them to two-domain CD4. When expressed by Lactobacillus, CD4 was attached it to the bacterial cell surface. We confirmed that the CD4 protein expressed by Lactobacillus was functional by testing with a conformational antibody, Leu3A, which only binds to active CD4. We also showed that the Lactobacillus could express between 1000-10,000 molecules on the bacterial peptidoglycan surface.