Chang, TL, Chang, CH, Simpson, DA, Xu, Q, Martin, PK, Lagenaur, LA, Schoolnik, GK, Ho, DD, Hillier SL, Holodniy, M, Lewicki, JA and Lee, PP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 30;100(20):11672-7. Epub 2003 Sep 12.



Synopsis: This paper provided the initial proof of concept that a commensal bacterium could be used to express a protein to prevent HIV infection. CD4 is the primary receptor for HIV-1 on CD4+T cells. HIV-1 binds to CD4, then a co-receptor CCR5 in a cascade, thus the CD4+T cell becomes infected with HIV-1. We expressed a two-domain version of CD4 (also known as soluble CD4) to bind HIV-1 and thus prevent it from attaching to CD4+T cells. We showed that Lactobacillus could express two-domain CD4 and inhibit HIV in vitro.